Lutheran playground case before court zeros in on religious liberty

By Carol Zimmermann

WASHINGTON (CNS) — When the U.S. Supreme Court looks at a Lutheran
preschool playground case April 19, it will go far beyond settling a schoolyard squabble
and step into religious liberty turf.

issue in Trinity Lutheran v. Comer is if the state of Missouri can exclude houses
of worship in a playground refurbishment grant program using tire scraps.

Lutheran church says its exclusion from the program violates the Constitution
because it discriminates against religious institutions. The state disagrees,
saying the church can still worship and operate but just won’t get state funds
for its resurfaced playground.

In 2015,
the 8th U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals upheld the state’s decision to deny the
preschool’s grant application.

A full bench
will hear oral arguments in this case, since Justice Neil Gorsuch is now filling
the seat left vacant by Justice Antonin Scalia’s death last year. They will
likely hear both sides argue different interpretations of the court’s 2004
decision in Locke v. Davey, which said that states do not have to provide
tax-funded scholarships to college students who are pursuing careers in

church said the reimbursement grant had nothing to do with religion, like the
scholarship did, while opponents insist the state should not be providing any
financial support to religious institutions.

At a Supreme
Court briefing last fall before the court’s session began, C. Kevin Marshall, a
partner with the Washington law firm Jones Day, said how the court responds to
the playground case will have a broad effect.

He said
the case raises religious liberty questions but is “less contentious”
than last term’s Zubik v. Burwell, which challenged the Affordable Care Act’s
contraceptive requirement for employers.

can get to basics here,” he said.

U.S. Conference of Catholic Bishops filed an amicus brief supporting the preschool April 21, 2016, joined by the
Missouri Catholic Conference, the National Catholic Educational Association, the
Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, the General Synod of the Reformed
Church in America and the Salvation Army.

brief argues that the only reason the school was excluded from the state grant
program is because it is operated by a church.

overt discrimination against Trinity Lutheran purely because of its religious
status is repugnant to the First Amendment,” the brief said, adding that
the state lacked any legitimate or compelling reason to exclude the school from
the program.

brief also said the United States has had “a long and venerable tradition
of including religious institutions in neutral public aid programs” and
said the state’s action sends the message that “religious people and their
institutions are second-class citizens … not entitled to participate on
equal terms in government programs.”

It said
the government does not exclude religious institutions from basic public
services like police and fire protection.

dispute over the playground surface started five years ago when the school applied
for a grant reimbursing nonprofit groups for the cost of purchasing and installing
playground surfaces using recycled tires. The program is funded from a fee on
the sales of new tires meant to reduce the number of tires in the state’s
landfills and provide safe playground surfaces.

Department of Natural Resources, which administers the playground resurfacing program,
ranked Trinity Lutheran’s grant application fifth out of the 44 it received.
The department, which funds 14 grants, denied Trinity Lutheran’s application because
the state constitution prohibits state funds from going “directly or
indirectly, in aid of any church, sect or denomination of religion.”

Trinity Lutheran, the bigger issue is the school’s constitutional right to freely
exercise religion. Its supporters argue that to go against this right, the
state would have to show a compelling interest.

said the state failed to do this because the criteria used to determine which schools
receive the grants and even the grants themselves have nothing to do with

state has rejected these arguments stressing that the playground program has a limited
availability and the reimbursement funds were not generally available to the
public since only a handful of all applicants were accepted.

a blog on the Supreme Court, says supporters on both sides “predict that
dire consequences will flow from a ruling for the other side,” noting that
amicus briefs backing the church argue that if the lower court’s ruling and the
program are upheld, “everything from school vouchers and fire and safety
protection for private religious schools to social services — such as battered
women’s shelters and soup kitchens — provided by faith-based organizations
that receive public funds could be in jeopardy.”

siding with the state say a ruling favoring the Lutheran church could prevent the
government from treating churches differently which “could result in
taxpayer funds going to groups that discriminate based on sexual orientation or

case has been sitting before the court for some time. It was granted a review last
Jan. 15, nearly one month before Scalia’s death.

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Follow Zimmermann on Twitter: @carolmaczim.

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